The ocean covers more than two-thirds of our planet’s surface. It is a vast ecosystem that regulates the global climate, provides humans with natural resources such as food, raw materials, and energy, and is essential for international trade as well as recreational and cultural activities. However, pressures resulting from overfishing, increasing resource extraction, various sources of pollution, and alterations to coastal zones and ecosystems constitute severe threats to ocean health and sustainability. In many cases, activities on land such as farming, construction, tourism, and waste discharge have negative impacts on coastal and marine environments with negative feedbacks on human well-being. Even though the knowledge and awareness of these threats and relationships are increasing, approaches to achieving a more sustainable utilisation of ocean resources and services are still rare. Sufficient governance mechanisms are often lacking or only partly or slowly implemented.
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